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Appendix I: A Catalog of Greek Manuscripts

    This appendix is included for the purpose of comparison. When reviewing the Greek manuscript information cited in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation, the reader may be left with the impression that relatively few reliable ancient Greek manuscripts are available for textual study. That is far from true.

    The Greek New Testament, Third Edition,[1] prepared by the United Bible Societies is a source reference used by the Kingdom Interlinear Translation editors and is identified as "UBS." As does the Kingdom Interlinear Translation itself, the UBS lists in footnote form ancient Greek manuscripts and other sources consulted when the Greek wording is questionable. (We also note from the UBS list that versions can be used to authenticate a Greek wording. However, the verification comes from similarity of the translation to the original Greek language source. Versions are never used to replace the reading of a word in the Greek text itself.)

[1] The Greek New Testament, Third Edition (Corrected), © 1966, 1968, 1975, 1983, published by the UNITED BIBLE SOCIETIES. All textual citations in this appendix have come from either this edition or the companion volume, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, © 1971. (Three manuscript dates have been added from another edition.) Because of the constant revision process on the UBS text, each new edition will contain supplementary material. Comparison of textual apparatus material will not always be identical between subsequent editions.

    Ability to understand and use a textual apparatus is a worthwhile skill for the advanced Bible student. For that reason, we will demonstrate the use of the UBS apparatus with one example of a problematic verse.

    In the first section of this appendix, we will briefly compare the footnote material found in the UBS reference for Revelation 1:8 with that of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation for the same verse. We have chosen this verse merely because we are already familiar with its use in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation and because it represents a textual problem in another part of the wording.

    In the second section, we will give the UBS list of manuscripts and other sources used to substantiate the wording of the Christian Greek Scriptures.

    The manuscripts, versions, and lectionaries listed in the second section are the footnote citations used in the UBC "Greek New Testament" to confirm variant readings. Note their number!

    In addition to the material included in this appendix, the UBS also includes citations from the patristics. Over 200 names are included in this latter catalog of patristics, and each may be cited multiple times in support of the Greek text.

    (Refer to the Glossary for word definitions used in this appendix.)

Is the UBS acceptable to Witnesses?

    As a reference source, the UBS must be acceptable to Witnesses. First, it must be acceptable for the simple reason that it is a citation source in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation. (However, we fully understand that mere citation does not imply that all information contained therein is wholly endorsed by the Kingdom Interlinear Translation editors.) Secondly, though this is a more recently updated Greek Scripture text than that of the Westcott and Hort source used for the New World Translation, the text is substantially the same. Rejection of the UBS text would be tantamount to rejection of the Greek textual basis for the New World Translation! (That is, with the exception of the 237 Kyrios passages, the Greek text relied upon by the New World Translation must, of necessity, align itself with the best Greek texts available today.)

The Revelation 1:8 footnotes compared

    We have referred to Revelation 1:8 numerous times. This verse is interesting because there are textual variants which must be reconciled. However, as we will see in the extensive textual apparatus, none of the variants deal with the Tetragrammaton. (The textual apparatus is the footnote citation system which presents evidence for the best Greek wording from early manuscripts and related documents.) The New World Translation renders the verse,

    "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says Jehovah* God, "the One who is and who was and who is coming, the Almighty."

    The Kingdom Interlinear Translation footnote reads, "8* Jehovah, J7,8,13,14,16-18,22-24; Lord, A(Aleph)AVgSyh," thus citing ten Hebrew translations supporting Jehovah followed by two Greek manuscripts and two versions supporting Lord.

    However, from other ancient Greek manuscripts, we discover that there are at least two additional possible wordings for this verse. (As we will see, the readings are merely restatements of "Alpha…Omega," and present no theological difficulties.)

    Notice the contrast with the UBC footnote for the same verse. (The footnote has three sections; the first cites textual evidences, the second cites various English translation renderings, and the third cites biblical [including Septuagint] cross references which, in turn, cite similar uses of Greek wording or structure.) The footnote portion for this verse will be reproduced verbatim without explanation of the symbols used.

    The wording in question is shown in the following three possibilities. Their order indicates the strength of the Greek manuscript support from greatest to least:

  1. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, is saying the Lord, the God…"

  2. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, beginning and ending, is saying the Lord, the God…"

  3. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the ending, is saying the Lord, the God…"

        The Kingdom Interlinear Translation gives the following Greek and English entry:

        The UBS footnote tells us that the following sources give the first reading as it is found in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation:

      (Aleph) אa[2]   Aleph, an important 4th cent. manuscript cited frequently by KIT
      A   Codex Alexandrinus, an important 5th cent. manuscript cited frequently by KIT.
      C   Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th century manuscript quoted by KIT.
      P   A 9th cent. Greek manuscript.
      046   A 10th cent. Greek manuscript.
      94   A 12th cent. Greek manuscript.
      1006   An 11th cent. Greek manuscript.
      1611   A 12th cent. Greek manuscript.
      1859   A 14th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2020   A 15th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2042   A 14th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2053   A 13th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2138   An 11th cent. Greek manuscript.
      ith   A 5th cent. Old Latin version.
      syrph.h   Includes both 6th and 7th cent. Old Latin versions.
      arm   A 13th cent. Armenian version cited by KIT.
      eth   A 6th cent. Ethiopic version.
      Ambrose   A quotation from a writing by a patristic who died in 397 C.E.
      Diadochus   A quotation from a writing by a patristic who died in 468 C.E.
      Primasius   A quotation from a writing by a patristic who died in 552 C.E.
      Arethas   A quotation from a writing by a patristic who died in 914 C.E.

    [2] א (Aleph) designates Codex Sinaiticus which is a fourth century manuscript. However, in the sixth and seventh centuries, margin notes were added, supplying alternate readings. These margin notes are identified with superscript letters as aa,b,c, and so on. In this instance, the margin notation aa does not alter the wording, whereas ab adds the words "beginning and ending."

        A variant wording of Revelation 1:8 is familiar to us from the King James Version. (The KJV adds the article the to make a smooth English sentence.) The wording of this variant is:

        The UBS footnote tells us that the following sources give this second reading. This list of sources carries less weight than the first group:

      (Aleph) אb   Aleph, a 4th cent. manuscript. (See footnote 2 on the previous page.)
      1   A 12th cent. Greek manuscript.
      1828   A 12th cent. Greek manuscript.
      1854   An 11th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2065   A 15th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2073   A 14th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2081   An 11th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2344   An 11th cent. Greek manuscript.
      2432   A 14th cent. Greek manuscript.
      itar,c,dem,div, gig,haf,t,z   A family of Old Latin versions between the 8th and 13th cents. A total of 8 individual versions are represented.
      vg   The Latin Vulgate cited by KIT.
      Origenlat   A quotation from a writing by Origen, a patristic who died in 254 C.E. It is of note that he did not use יהוה. (Origen was thoroughly competent in Hebrew.)
      Andrewbav,c   Two separate quotations of a patristic who died in 614 C.E.

        A final variant wording of Revelation 1:8 adds an article before the words beginning and ending :

        The UBS footnote tells us that the following sources give this third reading. Again, this list of manuscripts carries less weight than either of the preceding two possibilities:

      2081   An 11th century Greek manuscript.
      Andrewa   A quotation-distinct from the above citation-of a patristic who died in 614.
      copbo   A Coptic version from the 4th cent.

    Textual Commentary information

        The United Bible Societies publishes a companion volume to the Greek New Testament entitled A Textual Commentary on The Greek New Testament. This volume gives further explanation of the textual apparatus. The entire entry for Revelation 1:8 is as follows:

    1.8 ΅Ώ {B}
        After ΅Ώ the Textus Receptus [the Greek text from which the King James Version was translated], following א* 1 (2344) itgig.61 vg al, adds άρχη και τέλος [beginning and ending], and twenty other minuscules add ή άρχη και το τέλος [the beginning and the ending]. If the longer text were original no good reason can be found to account for the shorter text, whereas the presence of the longer expression in 21.6 obviously prompted some copyists to expand the text here.

        This brief quotation is interesting primarily in that it gives us insight into the use of the UBS textual apparatus. In this case, we are not particularly concerned with the argument against including the "beginning and ending" clause. There is a second area of interest, however, because once again we see no evidence of a textual discussion concerning Greek manuscripts which contain יהוה.

    Importance of variant information

        The variants of Revelation 1:8 are interesting illustrations for several reasons. First, we can see an example of a wording variant which must be resolved because we desire an accurate text. Yet neither of the two variants change the theological content of the verse. The phrase in question, "[the] beginning and [the] ending," adds nothing to that which the original author said. It is redundant inasmuch as "A" (alpha) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet and ΅Ώ" (omega) is the last.

        Secondly, because of the variant, there has been heightened study of early Greek manuscripts to determine the original word used by the Apostle John in this verse. With all this attention to the manuscripts, not a single citation is made indicating the presence of the Tetragrammaton. Most certainly, if a heresy of such catastrophic proportions as the removal of the Tetragrammaton had taken place in the second century, it would have come to light in the study of the Greek Scripture manuscripts or writings of the early patristics.

        Thirdly, the very Greek manuscripts used by the UBS to substantiate the preferred reading are the same Greek manuscripts used by the translators of the New World Translation as citations for Kyrios (Lord) in this verse. It is only by reference to much later Hebrew translations that the word Jehovah can be brought into the verse.

        Finally, it is interesting to realize that Origen himself is one of the early patristics cited. Most certainly, if Origen had written the Tetragrammaton in this verse, a citation of his comment for the present wording could not be used without recognition of יהוה as being the greater variant. The inference by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society that Origen used the Tetragrammaton in the Christian Greek Scriptures must be completely reevaluated. In this one instance, he most certainly did not use יהוה! Thus, in at least this verse, Origen recognized that Kyrios could properly be identified with "God ...the Almighty."

    UBS textual apparatus citations

        The UBS includes two tables of information listing the early Greek manuscripts, lectionaries, and versions cited in support of readings within the Greek text. (Lectionaries are portions of Scripture organized for daily-or church service-readings. They are Scripture portions, but they are not organized chronologically in book form.) The first table contains the identification of all citations irrespective of frequency. The second list contains only the principle sources for citation.

        It will be of interest to the reader to see the large number of Greek manuscripts and related material which are used to substantiate the wording of the Greek Scriptures. Within this appendix, we have included all of the entries in the Papyri section because these represent the earliest documents available. Under the headings for Uncials, Minuscules, Lectionaries, and Versions, we have generally given only those which are included in the UBS's shorter list.

        For interest's sake, in Table 10 we have tabulated the information of all UBS references at the close of this appendix.

        The following material is noted as the PRINCIPAL MANUSCRIPTS AND VERSIONS CITED IN THE TEXTUAL APPARATUS from the Third Edition of The Greek New Testament by the United Bible Societies. The first column headed, No. identifies the document in question with its universally recognized letter or number identification. The heading, Content identifies the portion of the Christian Greek Scriptures which is contained in the document. (See the KEY below.) The heading, Date identifies the approximate century of the Common Era in which the manuscript was produced. In the case of the writings of an early patristic, the date is the time (or best approximation) of death. The section headings, Papyri, Uncials, Minuscules, Lectionaries, and Versions, refer to a specific type of manuscript. (See the Glossary for definitions.)

    KEY Content: e-Gospels; a-Acts; p-Pauline Epistles; c-General Epistles; r Revelation. Date: E-early; L-late; c.-circa.

    No. Content Date
      P1   e 3rd  
      P2   e 6th  
      P3   e 6th / 7th  
      P4   e 3rd  
      P5   e 3rd  
      P6   e 4th  
      P8   a 4th  
      P10   p 4th  
      P11   p 7th  
      P13   p 3rd / 4th  
      P15   p 3rd  
      P16   p 3rd / 4th  
      P18   r 3rd / 4th  
      P19   e 4th / 5th  
      P21   e 4th / 5th  
      P22   e 3rd  
      P23   c E 3rd  
      P24   r 4th  
      P25   e L 4th  
      P26   p c. 600  
      P27   p 3rd  
      P30   p 3rd  
      P33   a 6th  
      P36   e 6th  
      P37   e 3rd / 4th  
      P38   a c. 300  
      P39   e 3rd  
      P40   p 3rd  
      P41   a 8th  
      P45   ea 3rd  
      P46   p c. 200  
      P47   r L 3rd  
      P48   a L 3rd  
      P49   p L 3rd  
      P50   a 4th / 5th  
      P51   p c. 400  
      P58   a 6th  
      P59   e 7th  
      P60   e 7th  
      P61   p c. 700  
      P63   e c. 500  
      P64   e c. 200  
      P65   p 3rd  
      P66   e c. 200  
      P67   e c. 200  
      P64   p 7th?  
      P70   e 3rd  
      P71   e 4th  
      P72   c 3rd / 4th  
      P74   ac 7th  
      P75   e E 3rd  
      P76   e 6th  
    No. Content Date
      Aleph 01   eapcr 4th  
      A 02   eapcr 5th  
      B 03   eapc 4th  
      C 04   eapcr 5th  
      D 05   eac 5th / 6th  
      D 06   p 6th  
      Dabs   p 9th  
      E 07   ac 6th  
      E 08   a 6th  
      F 09   e 9th  
      F 010   p 9th  
      G 011   e 9th  
      G 012   p 9th  
      H 013   e 9th  
      H 014   a 9th  
      H 015   p 6th  
      I 016   p 5th  
      K 017   e 9th  
      K 018   ap 9th  
      L 019   e 8th  
      L 020   ap 9th  
      M 021   e 9th  
      N 022   e 6th  
      O 023   e 6th  
      P 024   e 6th  
      P 025   apr 9th  
      Q 026   e 5th  
      R 027   e 6th  
      S 028   e 949  
      T 029   e 5th  
      U 030   e 9th  
      V 031   e 9th  
      W 032   e 5th  
      X 033   e 10th  
      Y 034   e 9th  
      Z 035   e 6th  
      G 036   e 10th  
      D 037   e 9th  
      q 038   e 9th  
      L 039   e 9th  
      X 040   e 8th  
      P 041   e 9th  
      S 042   e 6th  
      F 043   e 6th  
      Y 044   eap 8th / 9th  
      W 045   e 9th  
      046   r 10th  
      047   e 8th  
      048   apc 5th  
      049   apc 9th  
      050   e 9th  
      051   r 10th  
      052   r 10th  
      053   e 9th  
      054   e 8th  
      056   apc 10th  
      058   e 4th  
      059   e 4th / 5th  
      060   e 6th  
      061   p 5th  
      062   p 5th  
      063   e 9th  
      064   e 6th  
      065   e 6th  
      066   a 6th  
      067   e 6th  
      068   e 5th  
      070   e 6th  
      071   e 5th / 6th  
      073   e 6th  
      074   e 6th  
      076   a 5th / 6th  
      078   e 6th  
      079   e 6th  
      081   p 6th  
      082   p 6th  
      083   e 6th / 7th  
      084   e 6th  
      085   e 6th  
      086   e 6th  
      087   e 6th  
      088   p 5th / 6th  
      090   e 6th  
      091   e 6th  
      092b   e 6th  
      093   ac 6th  
      095   a 8th  
      096   a 7th  
      097   a 7th  
      099   e 7th  
      0100   e 7th  
      0102   e 7th  
      0105   e 10th  
      0106   e 7th  
      0107   e 7th  
      0108   e 7th  
      0109   e 7th  
      0110   e 6th  
      0111   p 7th  
      0112   e 6th / 7th  
      0113   e 5th  
      0115   e 9th / 10th  
      0116   e 8th  
      0117   e 9th  
      0119   e 7th  
      0120   a 9th  
      0121a   p 10th  
      0121b   p 10th  
      0122   p 9th  
      0124   e 6th  
      0125   e 5th  
      0126   e 8th  
      0128   e 9th  
      0129   p 9th  
      0130   e 9th  
      0131   e 9th  
      0132   e 9th  
      0134   e 8th  
      0136   e 9th  
      0138   e 9th  
      0141   e 10th  
      0142   apc 10th  
      0143   e 6th  
      0146   e 8th  
      0148   e 8th  
      0150   p 9th  
      0151   p 9th  
      0155   e 9th  
      0156   c 8th  
      0159   p 6th  
      0162   e 3rd / 4th  
      0165   a 5th  
      0170   e 5th / 6th  
      0171   e 4th  
      0172   p 5th  
      0175   a 5th  
      0176   p 4th / 5th  
      0177   e 10th  
      0179   e 6th  
      0180   e 6th  
      0181   e 4th / 5th  
      0182   e 5th  
      0186   p 5th / 6th  
      0187   e 6th  
      0189   a 2nd / 3rd  
      0190   e 6th  
      0191   e 7th  
      0193   e 7th  
      0196   e 9th  
      0197   e 9th  
      0201   p 5th  
      0202   e 6th  
      0206   c 4th  
      0207   r 4th  
      0208   p 6th  
      0209   pc 7th  
      0210   e 7th  
      0214   e 4th / 5th  
      0216   e 5th  
      0217   e 5th  
      0220   p 3rd  
      0221   p 4th  
      0223   p 6th  
      0225   p 6th  
      0226   p 5th  
      0229   r 8th  
      0230   p 4th  
      0232   c 5th / 6th  
      0234   e 8th  
      0235   e 6th / 7th  
      0236   a 5th  
      0237   e 6th  
      0238   e 8th  
      0242   e 4th  
      0243   p 10th  
      0246   c 6th  
      0250   e 8th  
    No. Content Date
      f1   e 12th-14th  
      f13   e 11th-13th  
      l   r 12th  
      28   e 11th  
      33   eapc 9th  
      81   apc 11th  
      88   apcr 12th  
      94   r 12th  
      104   apcr 11th  
      181   apc 11th  
      326   apc 12th  
      330   eapc 12th  
      436   apc 11th  
      451   apc 11th  
      565   e 9th  
      614   apc 13th  
      629   apc 14th  
      630   apc 14th  
      700   e 11th  
      892   e 9th  
      945   eapc 11th  
      1006   er 11th  
      1009   e 13th  
      1010   e 12th  
      1071   e 12th  
      1079   e 10th  
      1195   e 12th  
      1216   e 11th  
      1230   e 12th  
      1241   eapc 12th  
      1242   eapc 13th  
      1253   e 15th  
      1344   e 12th  
      1365   e 12th  
      1505   eapc 11th  
      1546   e  13th  
      1611   apcr 12th  
      1646   eapc 12th  
      1739   apc 10th  
      1828   apcr 12th  
      1854   apcr 11th  
      1859   acr 14th  
      1877   apc 14th  
      1881   apc 14th  
      1962   p 11th  
      1984   p 14th  
      1985   p 16th  
      2020   r 15th  
      2042   r 14th  
      2053   r 13th  
      2065   r 15th  
      2073   r 14th  
      2081   r 11th  
      2127   e 14th  
      2138   apcr 11th  
      2148   e 14th  
      2174   e 14th  
      2344   apcr 11th  
      2412   apc 12th  
      2432   r 14th  
      2492   eapc 13th  
      2495   eapcr 14th / 15th  
    No. Content Date
      l10   e 13th  
      l12   e 13th  
      l32   e 11th  
      l59   apc 12th  
      l60   eapc 11th  
      l69   e 12th  
      l70   e 12th  
      l80   e 12th  
      l147   apc 12th  
      l150   e 10th  
      l184   e 14th  
      l211   e 12th  
      l292   e 9th  
      l299   e 13th  
      l303   e 12th  
      l309   e 10th  
      l313   e 14th  
      l333   e 13th  
      l374   e 11th  
      l381   e 11th  
      l490   e 9th  
      l547   e 8th  
      l597   apc 10th  
      l598   apc 11th  
      l599   apc 11th  
      l603   apc 11th  
      l680   eapc 13th  
      l809   apc 12th  
      l847   e 10th  
      l950   e 13th  
      l1021   eapc 12th  
      l1127   e 12th  
      l1153a   apc 14th  
      l1231   e 10th  
      l1298   apc 11th  
      l1356   apc 10th  
      l1364   apc 12th  
      l1365   apc 12th  
      l1439   apc 12th  
      l1441   apc 13th  
      l1443   apc 11th  
      l1579   e 14th  
      l1590   apc 13th  
      l1599   c 9th  
      l1610   e 15th  
      l1627   e 11th  
      l1634   e 12th  
      l1642   e 13th  
      l1663   e 14th  
      l1761   e 15th  
      Old Latin
    Abb. Content Date
      ita   e 4th  
      ita2   e 5th  
      itar   eaper 9th  
      itaur   e 7th  
      itb   c 5th  
      itb   c 7th  
      itc   eapcr 12th / 13th  
      itd   eac 5th  
      itd   p 5th / 6th  
      itdem   apcr 13th  
      itdiv   pcr 13th  
      ite   e 5th  
      ite   p 9th  
      itf   c 6th  
      itf   p 9th  
      itff   c 10th / 11th  
      itff1   eac 10th  
      itff2   e 5th  
      itg   p 9th  
      itg1   eapcr 9th  
      itgig   eapcr 13th  
      itgue   p 6th  
      ith   e 5th  
      ith   acr 5th  
      ithaf   r 10th  
      iti   e 5th  
      itj   e 6th  
      itk   e 4th / 5th  
      itl   e 7th / 8th  
      itl   eapcr 7th  
      itm   eapcr 4th-9th  
      itmon   p 10th  
      itn   e 5th  
      ito   e 7th  
      itp   e 8th  
      itp   eapcr 13th  
      itph   a 12th  
      it   e 7th  
      itq   e 7th  
      itq   c 7th  
      itr   a 7th / 8th  
      itr1   e 7th  
      itr2   e 8th / 9th  
      itr3   p 7th  
      itr   e 7th / 8th  
      its   e 5th  
      its   ac 6th  
      itt   eapcr 11th  
      itt   e 6th  
      itv   p 8th / 9th  
      itw   p 11th  
      itx   pd 9th  
      itz   pcr 8th  
    Abb. Content Date
      vg   eapcr 4th / 5th  
      vgcl   eapcr 16th  
      vgww   eapcr 19th-20th  
    Abb. Content Date
      syrs   e 4th  
      syrc   e 4th  
      syrp   eapcpt 5th  
      syrpal   eapc 5th  
      syrph   cptr 6th  
      syrh   eapcr 7th  
    Abb. Content Date
      copsa   eapcr 3rd  
      copbo   eapcr 4th  
      copfay   eapcr 4th  
      copach   e 4th  
      copach2   e 4th  
    Abb. Content Date
      goth   eap 4th  
    Abb. Content Date
      arm   eapcr 5th  
    Abb. Content Date
      eth   eapcr 6th  
      ethro   eapcr 16th  
      ethpp   eapcr 19th  
      ethms   e 13th  
    Abb. Content Date
     geo   ea 5th  
     geo1   e 9th  
     geo2   e 10th  
     geoA   e 10th  
     geoB   e 10th  
    Abb. Content Date
      Nub   ep 8th?  

    Summary of UBS citations

        The following table summarizes the early Greek manuscripts, lectionaries, early versions, and writings of the patristics used to verify the original wording of the Christian Greek Scriptures in the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament. The manuscripts which were available as of 1976 are listed in the Total available column. No total number is given for versions.

    Manuscript type Earliest / Latest UBS total Total available[3]
      Papyri c.200 / 8th C.E. 53 88
      Uncials 4th / 10th C.E. 179 274
      Minuscules 9th / 18th C.E. 522 2795
      Lectionaries 8th / 15th C.E. 149 2209
        Old Latin 4th / 13th C.E. 58 86[4]
        Syriac 4th / 7th C.E. 9 N/A
        Coptic 3rd / 4th C.E. 5 N/A
        Ethiopic 6th C.E. 3 N/A
        Georgian 5th C.E. 3 N/A
        Other versions 4th / 8th C.E. 8 N/A
      Patristics (Fathers) 110 / 1135 C.E. 212 N/A

    [3] Manuscripts of the Greek Bible, Metzger, p. 54.

    [4] From UBS sources.

    Table 10. Manuscript evidence supporting the UBS Greek text.

        One may correctly draw the conclusion that Table 10 documents the supporting evidence for Kyrios (Κύριος) in the Christian Greek Scriptures. This large number of Greek Scripture manuscripts (and supplementary documents) is used to validate the entire Greek Scripture text. Thus, any single variant, such as יהוה, will be subject to evaluation by all known documents. In that light, contrast the sources supporting יהוה in the New World Translation and Kyrios (Κύριος) in the UBS text. (The UBS text is comparable to the Kingdom Interlinear Translation text.) The New World Bible Translation Committee used 26 Hebrew versions, all of which were translated (with the exception of J2 and the related recensions of Matthew's Hebrew Gospel) between 1385 and 1979, to introduce Jehovah into the English Greek Scriptures. Each of these translations were made from the Greek text, which itself contains Kyrios (Κύριος). In contrast to 26 versions, the UBS has used 86 versions dating as early as the third and fourth centuries. In addition, UBS has cited a total of 754 Greek manuscripts and 149 lectionaries. The New World Translation itself cites 12 Greek manuscripts and eight versions in support of Kyrios (Κύριος), but no Greek manuscripts in support of יהוה.

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