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The primary reference books used in this study were published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. The books included in this bibliography are useful resources for any study of the Tetragrammaton in the Christian Greek Scriptures. The books identified with a double bullet (**) are essential for such a study; a single bullet (*) indicates that the book should be consulted. The list includes:
A. Materials published by the Watch Tower Society.
B. Reference materials cited by the Watch Tower Society.
C. Helpful reading from outside sources.
D. References citing יהוה in Greek manuscripts
A. Materials published by the Watch Tower Society
These materials should be used by anyone seriously studying the Watch Tower Society's teaching concerning the Tetragrammaton in the Christian Greek Scriptures. For those involved in this study who are not ones of Jehovah's Witnesses, it is imperative that the reference materials published by the Watch Tower Society be consulted directly, rather than depending solely on books critical to the subject. (It should be added that this book—The Tetragrammaton and the Christian Greek Scriptures—should not replace a careful study of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation itself.)
**The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, 1969 and 1985 editions. This is the single most useful source of information for a Tetragrammaton study. The footnotes are an unsurpassed source for textual dating of both the Greek word Κύριος and the Hebrew versions using יהוה. The 1969 Edition gives more complete information for both the early Greek manuscripts and J1 through J21 than does the 1985 Edition. However, the 1985 Edition adds newly researched information for J22 through J27 and certain early Greek manuscripts such as P45, P46, P47, P66, P74, and P75. Appendices 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D give much useful information concerning the Greek alphabet and language. All of the introductory material should also be read. For a complete study, both the 1969 and 1985 Editions should be used.
**New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures Reference Edition, revised 1984. This volume will be the second most important source of information for a Tetragrammaton study. The INTRODUCTION beginning on page 6 gives information regarding the translation philosophy as it concerns the restoration of the divine name. Some "J" footnote material is found which is not included in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation, though the reader is not given either the "J" or Greek manuscript information contained within the Kingdom Interlinear Translation footnotes. Appendices 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, and 3A should also be consulted.
**The Holy Bible, American Standard Version, 1901 edition. This is an excellent translation and is notable for its use of Jehovah in the Hebrew Scriptures. For the sake of comparison, this is an excellent translation to use for general reading.
*"All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial," 1990 edition. Study Five gives some interesting information regarding the Septuagint (LXX) version (page 307 and following) and the Masoretic vowel points and emendation of the Hebrew text (page 311 and following). Consult the chart on page 309 for the relationship of the Hebrew versions to the Greek manuscripts. The charts on pages 313-314 give valuable Greek manuscript dating. Study Six gives important information regarding the Greek text. The 1983 edition was cited in at least one instance because it contained slightly different information.
Comprehensive Concordance of the NEW WORLD TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES, 1973 edition. A comprehensive concordance gives all important biblical references for a given word. This concordance is a useful tool when attempting a thorough study of such words as Jehovah or Lord in either the Hebrew or Greek Scriptures. Though the entries are in English, a well defined word such as Lord can be located in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation under entries such as Lord, master, owner, sir, and the like.
*INSIGHT on the Scriptures, volumes 1 and 2, 1988 Edition. This is a particularly valuable reference for a concise summary of the Watch Tower Society's viewpoint regarding numerous topics encountered in a study of the Tetragrammaton. The topics "Jehovah," "Jesus Christ," and "Lord," should particularly be consulted. (For any reader who is not one of Jehovah's Witnesses, these three headings will give much useful background information.) Regrettably, there are no headings for either "Septuagint," or "Tetragrammaton," though these subjects are addressed under other headings. Much pertinent language information is contained under the headings "Greek," and "Hebrew II."
*Aid to Bible Understanding, 1969 edition. This was the original work which was re-published as a the two-volume set INSIGHT on the Scriptures. This volume could equally be consulted for each of the subjects listed above. In many cases, the material in this volume is more technically complete than the subsequent INSIGHT book.
The Emphatic Diaglott Containing the Original Greek Text (the 1942 edition was used). The primary value of this volume to the Tetragrammaton study is the availability of a second interlinear Greek/English text published and authorized by the Watch Tower Society. Some useful supplementary material is also contained in the introductory pages.
JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Chapter 27 (Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word) gives important information on the New World Translation and the Kingdom Interlinear Translation. This chapter strongly defends the textual reliability of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation.
Reasoning from the Scriptures, 1989. This book deals topically with a number of important subjects. To a reader unfamiliar with the Watch Tower Society's teaching, this is a practical reference book. The sections headed "Jehovah," "God," and "Jesus Christ," are particularly helpful.
The Divine Name That Will Endure Forever, 1984. This booklet will give information regarding the divine name. The brochure encompasses material generally known by ones of Jehovah's Witnesses. To those unfamiliar with the subject, this is a good, yet brief, introduction.
Should You Believe in the Trinity?, 1989. This booklet should be considered as a concise statement of the position of the Watch Tower Society on the person of Jesus Christ. The subtitle reads, "Is Jesus Christ the Almighty God?" This publication will give the reader a contrasting point of view to that in this book.
The Greatest Man Who Ever Lived, 1991. This book is a chronological account of the life of Jesus; it was not used in this study in regard to the Tetragrammaton. It was only cited for a particular reference to the person of Jesus.
"The Word," Who is He? According to John. This book was cited as a reference source merely to illustrate the I John 5:7b passage which does not appear in the best Greek manuscripts.
B. Reference materials cited by the Watch Tower
Watch Tower Society publications frequently cite biblical materials produced by outside publishers. This does not imply full endorsement by the Watch Tower Society, but it acknowledges their understanding of the merit and scholarship of the work. Generally (as in the case of the Septuagint), the Watch Tower Society's endorsement is of the work and not the specific publisher.
*The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies, Third Edition (Corrected), 1975. The UBS Greek text of the Christian Greek Scriptures is often used as the standard of comparison for textual accuracy. Comparison can be made between this and the Westcott and Hort text when a detailed study of Greek word usage is necessary. The text contains a critical apparatus which gives variant readings and their sources.
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Third Edition, 1971. The Watch Tower Society does not list this volume per se. However, it is listed in this section inasmuch as it is the companion volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament listed above. The volume gives the textual references and explanations to each of the critical apparatus entries in UBS.
*A Concordance to the Greek Testament, editors W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh. This is the J20 Jehovah reference. This volume gives two types of information which are useful in the Tetragrammaton study. First, it lists all of the Kyrios references in the entire Christian Greek Scriptures. Secondly, it gives the יהוה references for each Hebrew Scripture quotation. This volume should be consulted for the 1 Peter 2:3 reference which was omitted by the translators of the New World Translation. This source was also used as a reference for both 1 Peter 1:25 and 3:12.
The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament with an English Translation, Zondervan Publishing House, 1994. Though not an essential part of a Tetragrammaton study, it is of interest to locate Kyrios (Κύριος) references in the Hebrew Scripture Septuagint. This particular volume contains an English translation. Though it is not interlinear, the student who is not familiar with Greek would, nonetheless, be able to do a search for the single Greek word after locating the parallel verse in English. Any publisher's Greek/English Septuagint would equally serve the purpose.
*Origenis Hexaplorum (Origen's Hexapla), edited by Fridericus Field, and published by Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung in Hildesheim, Germany, 1964. This is a two-volume set with over 1900 pages of the reconstructed Hexapla. Regrettably, the foreword material is in Latin. Nonetheless, the volumes are extremely helpful to us in our study of the Tetragrammaton in Origen's Septuagint. Even for the student who does not read Hebrew or Greek, the format of this book lends itself well to sight identification of יהוה as opposed to Κύριος. The entries can be thoroughly searched for either of the two words. Chapter and verse identification follows that of the English text. This reference work must be studied for a definitive answer regarding Origen's use of יהוה in the Septuagint.
*The Gospel of Matthew according to a Primitive Hebrew Text, by George Howard, published by Mercer University Press, Macon, Georgia, 1987. (The book was re-published in 1995 with a new title: Hebrew Gospel of Matthew.) This is an excellent book and one which makes an important contribution to biblical studies. It reproduces the Shem-Tob Hebrew Gospel of Matthew with an accompanying English translation. (This is the J2 Hebrew version.) Included is a comprehensive study of the Gospel which strongly suggests that the original Gospel written in Hebrew by Matthew is its source. The book gives valuable information for a study of Matthew's Hebrew Gospel. If Howard's thesis is correct, this English translation of the text gives an interesting insight into the possible content of this lost Gospel.
Ante-Nicene Fathers; The Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325, edited by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1994, Hendrickson Publisher, Inc., 10 Volumes. This set will give the reader insight into the issues and thinking of the early church as seen through the writings of its leaders. In many cases, both the antagonists and protagonists of a given issue are quoted. These volumes represent the earliest church literature from its inception until 325 C.E. This material has been reprinted by several publishers, including the series by Scribners and Sons and Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, edited by Philip Schaff, also published by Hendrickson Publisher, Inc., 1994. This 14-volume set is a continuation of the above volumes, covering the time period after 325 C.E.
*The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, published by Baker Book House, 1952. This 12-volume set (with two supplementary volumes and an Index) was frequently utilized for historical, and general, non-sectarian information. The primary articles consulted were "Bible Text," and "Bible versions," both found in Volume 2. (These sections included material on the Septuagint, the Masoretic text, the Hexapla, Aquila's and Symmachus' Greek versions, Origen's work, and the like.) In addition, the headings, "Origen" (Vol. 8), "Gnosticism" (Vol. 4), "Masorah" (Vol. 7), and "Arianism" (Vol. 1) were consulted with additional reference to supplementary topics. An encyclopedia such as this is useful inasmuch as it is non-sectarian and is concerned with historical data rather than present applications to doctrinal systems.
*The Cairo Geniza, by Paul I. Kahle, Oxford, 1959. This book gives much insightful information regarding a number of topics related to the Tetragrammaton in the Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures. Many specific manuscript illustrations are discussed. Important information regarding Origen and the second column of the Hexapla is also included. The book is well worth reading.
McClintock & Strong Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, re-published by Baker Book House Company, 1981. This 12-volume set was consulted only under the headings of "Origen" (Vol. 7) and "Septuagint" (Vol. 9). Though somewhat dated because it is a reprint of the original 1867 publication, the work still stands as the most comprehensive Bible literature encyclopedia in English, and is well worth consulting for these two headings.
Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown (General Editor), Zondervan Publishing House, 1975. This three-volume set is cited frequently in Watch Tower publications. It is an extremely valuable resource for the English reader who desires a complete description of Greek words found in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Frequent reference is made to Septuagint vocabulary and usage.) The volume contains ample English indexing; a knowledge of the Greek language is not necessary for use of this reference source. It is a translation of a German work and is generally non-sectarian in its information.
Theological Word Book of the Old Testament, R. Laid Harris, Gleason Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Moody Press, Chicago, 1980. In Volume I, page 210 (entry 484), an excellent, non-sectarian explanation of the word h/…hy is given. The writers hold the view that h/…hy is not derived from the common verb hw…h: (hawa) and therefore has a unique (though unknown) meaning. In fact, this is a position which is more favorable to the Watch Tower Society's viewpoint of the uniqueness of the divine name than the statements generally made by the Watch Tower Society itself.
The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible, edited by Frederic G. Kenyon, Emery Walker Ltd. of London, 1937. This book contains numerous photographs of the Chester Beatty manuscripts. From these facsimile reproductions, the reader can study the actual texts as written in approximately 200 C.E. It is an astonishing experience to view actual photographic reproductions of Scripture pages which were read less than ten years after the death of the Apostle John!
Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary, edited by M. Tenny, 1963. This one-volume dictionary gives a wide range of technical information regarding Bible lands, history, manuscripts, and the like.
Patrologiæ Cursus Completus (Complete Writings of the Fathers), edited by J.P. Migne and published in Paris in 1862. This is the standard reference for the complete collection of writings of the church fathers in their original Greek text. Unfortunately for the English reader, the Greek text is accompanied by a Latin translation. Volume 7, Origenis Opera Omnia (Origen's Complete Works) is a source used in Appendix J.
C. Helpful reading from outside sources
This bibliography has emphasized reading materials which are available to an active Jehovah's Witness. However, for those able to obtain books from outside sources, the texts identified in this section will give additional material regarding early manuscript data and the problems within textual criticism. Because most of the works in this section are recognized reference sources, many of them may be cited by the Watch Tower Society, though the citation is unknown to this author.
**The Divine Name Controversy (Vol. 1) by Firpo W. Carr, published in 1991 by Stoops Publishing, 10 N. Elliott, Aurora, MI 65605. Dr. Carr has done extensive work with computer aided reconstruction from ancient Hebrew manuscripts for the pronunciation of the divine name. Even though the Tetragrammaton's vowel sounds were not reproduced in ancient manuscripts, the pronunciation of similar consonant-vowel combinations were preserved through later Masoretic vowel pointing. From these preserved consonant-vowel combinations in other words of the Hebrew Scriptures, Carr has reproduced the probable pronunciation of the divine name. This book is certainly worthwhile reading.
**JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES DEFENDED an answer to scholars and critics, by Greg Stafford, Elihu Books, Huntington Beach, California, 1998. The scholarship represented in this book is superb; the author knowledgeably uses both Greek and Hebrew languages to argue his position. As the title suggests, the book is an apologetic which covers a number of topics. Stafford emphasizes the Watch Tower's position that Jesus is the highest of the Father's creation. Though the author of this book (The Tetragrammaton and the Christian Greek Scriptures) and Stafford hold entirely different viewpoints regarding the deity of Christ, it is refreshing and informative to gain the perspective of a scholar dealing with Scripture in depth. The reader who is not a Jehovah's Witness would profit by carefully and thoughtfully examining this book.
**The Text of the New Testament, Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, Second Edition, by Bruce Metzger, published by Oxford University Press, 1968. This volume is still in print. This book is an excellent introduction to the subject of textual criticism. (Textual criticism considers the history and restoration of the Greek manuscripts of the Christian Greek Scriptures.) This book gives sufficient descriptions and textual background to be completely understandable, and yet the reader who does not have a prior knowledge of the Greek language will have no difficulty with the material. A basic understanding of textual criticism is essential for anyone doing a serious study of the Tetragrammaton in the Greek Scriptures inasmuch as the resolution of the Tetragrammaton's presence primarily deals with this branch of textual study. This book is theologically neutral in that it is dealing with textual history. It should be interesting reading for Witnesses intent on understanding the process of Scripture transmission through the past two millennium.
Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism, by J. Harold Greenlee, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1975. This is a similar book to the one above. It is a shorter volume and can profitably be read as a supplement in that it contains additional information. However, the text by Metzger should be the first choice.
A Greek-English Lexicon, by W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, University of Chicago Press, 1979 edition. This is a comprehensive Greek lexicon (dictionary) used for both the Greek Christian Scriptures and other early Christian literature. This volume would not be used by most readers, but was consulted for this study.
The Canon of Scripture, by F. F. Bruce, Inter Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1988. This book gives an excellent introduction to the critical problems encountered in determining which ancient writings are to be regarded as Scripture. The subject is handled in its historical context by a highly recognized author; it is not theologically oriented, and should be informative reading for any one of Jehovah's Witnesses interested in pursuing the study.
Manuscripts of the Greek Bible, An Introduction to Greek Palaeography, by Bruce M. Metzger, Oxford University Press, New York, 1981. This large size book gives much technical information regarding ancient Greek manuscripts from one of the leading authorities in the field. Many facsimile reproductions of actual manuscripts are included. This book is a valuable resource for the serious student.
Eyewitness to Jesus, by Carsten Peter Thiede and Matthew D'Ancona, Doubleday, New York, 1996. This is a revealing book considering our theme of the new light on ancient Greek manuscripts which is becoming available today. In addition to their main topic of dating the Magdalen papyrus manuscript of Matthew to the 60's C.E., the authors have suggested earlier dates for numerous P manuscripts. In addition, the authors add considerable new information to the possibility of Christian Scripture manuscripts found in the Dead Sea Caves. Reference is also made to Nomina Sacra. This book is well worth reading.
Nomina Sacra in the Greek Papyri of the First Five Centuries A.D., by A.H.R.E. Paap, published by E.J. Brill, [South Africa], 1959. This book is one of a limited number of books in English devoted to the subject of the surrogates (contracted words) which are found in early Greek papyri manuscripts. Paap argues that these abbreviated words (such as k-"- for Κύριος [Lord]) were not mere scribal short-hand notations, but were used to indicate sacred names (Nomina Sacra). The book is highly technical with copious citations of ancient manuscripts. The book is available only through library loan services; for this book's research, the author was limited to an incomplete photocopy reproduction of the material.
The Gnostic Gospels, by Elaine Pagels, Random House, Inc., New York, 1979. This book is included merely because of the reference to the Gnostic Gospels in Chapter 8. Neither the author nor the Watch Tower Society would consider these writings as coming from Jehovah. Nonetheless, the topic could be profitably pursued inasmuch as the issue of the Tetragrammaton in the Christian Greek Scriptures is not unlike other areas of textual controversy throughout religious history.
D. References citing יהוה in
This section cites journal articles and other reference materials which support the presence of the Tetragrammaton in Greek manuscripts of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Psalterii Hexapli Reliquiae, Iohannis Card. Mercati, Bybliotheca Vaticana, 1958. This large size book shows the photographically reproduced Ambrosia manuscript of Origen's Hexapla. The photographs are accompanied by type-set text for approximately 150 verses between Psalm 17 and Psalm 88. The Tetragrammaton is clearly in evidence.
Manuscripts of the Greek Bible, An Introduction to Greek Palaeography, Bruce M. Metzger. See above.
The Cairo Geniza, Paul I. Kahle. See above.
The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11, J.A. Sanders, Oxford, 1965. This book shows an example of the paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton embedded in a square character Hebrew text of Psalm 119.
The Septuagint and Modern Study, Sidney Jellico, Oxford, 1968. This book contains some discussion of the Tetragrammaton in the Septuagint.
The Journal of Theological Studies
"The Tetragrammaton in the LXX" W. G. Waddel, Vol. XLV, No. 179-80, July-October, 1944.
"Were Greek Transliterations of the Hebrew Old Testament Used by Jews Before the Time of Origen?" J.A. Emerton, Vol. XXI, 1970.
"A Further Consideration of the Purpose of the Second Column of the Hexapla" J.A. Emerton, Vol. XXII, April, 1971.
Journal of Biblical Literature
"The Greek Bible Manuscripts Used by Origen" P.E. Kahle, Vol. LXXIX, Part II, June, 1960.